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Earliest, the mountain of relationship BP having Na intake ranged because of the time intake, recommending that Na occurrence get mirror the relationship which have BP ideal than just natural Na consumption do
There was a significant 3-way interaction between Na intake, energy, and obesity status for SBP (P=0.033); for DBP, the 3-way interaction was not significant, but there was a significant interaction between energy intake and obesity (P=0.005). In stratified models, the association of Na with SBP was stronger at lower energy intake (higher Na density) than at higher energy intake (lower Na density) in both nonobese (interaction of Na with energy; P<0.001) and obese (interaction of Na with energy; P=0.028); the association of Na and DBP by energy intakes was similar (interaction of Na with energy, P=0.005 nonobese; P=0.049 obese). On the control diet at 2300 mg Na intake in the nonobese, SBP was 4.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0, 8.5) higher at 2100 kcal compared with 3200 kcal (Figure 3A), and DBP was 3.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.7, 5.5) higher (Figure 3C). In obese at 2300 mg Na intake on the control diet, there were no differences in SBP (0.6 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?3.8 to 4.9; Figure 3B) or DBP (1.8 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 4.5; Figure 3D) between 2100 and 3200 kcal. On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, there were no significant differences in SBP at 2100 versus 3200 kcal regardless of obesity status (2.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 6.0 for nonobese and ?1.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?6.0 to 3.4 for obese). On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, DBP was higher at 2100 versus 3200 kcal in the nonobese (2.1 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.1–4.4), but not in the obese (?0.3 mm Hg (95% CI, ?3.2 to 2.6).
Figure 3. Interaction of absolute Na intake and energy intake on blood pressure at 3 energy levels stratified by obesity status, indicating 3 levels of Na density (L, I, and H), among normal and overweight (body mass index [BMI] <30 kg/m 2 , A and C) and obese (BMI?30 kg/m 2 , B and D) participants on the control diet. The vertical line is drawn at 2300 mg absolute Na intake. Error bars represent ±1 SE. Results from mixed-effects models of continuous Na and energy, adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, cohort, diet type (DASH [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension] or control), clinical center, and carryover effects stratified by obesity status. DBP indicates diastolic blood pressure; and SBP, systolic blood pressure.
So it analysis are held to determine whether the matchmaking ranging from Na and you can BP varies which have energy intake. Several trick findings came up. 2nd, as in earlier times reported, the outcome away from Na prevention is actually attenuated regarding the mode of the latest Dash diet compared to the new handle diet plan, indicating you to definitely areas of diet plan along with dictate the fresh new BP response to changes in Na consumption. 5,a dozen,thirteen Including attenuating new BP reaction to Na, brand new Dash eating plan and additionally decreased BP, in keeping with evidence one to aspects of diet, also a heightened intake away from potassium, individually straight down BP. fourteen Third, the new relationship out-of Na having time intake on BP carried on when brand new analyses was basically stratified by the battle, except for DBP certainly whites. Fourth, having stratification because of the carrying excess fat position, large variations in BP by times intake have been noticed one particular who were nonobese compared to obese.
Although the Dash–Na data managed Na occurrence, and never pure Na consumption, the initial outcome of this demo were translated regarding Na intake unlike Na thickness. The lack of revealing show by Na density will get echo the brand new absence of study towards time intake in lots of knowledge. Investigations of your own relationships out-of Na occurrence having death in observational studies have provided mixed results. The study of Na density having mortality throughout the NHANES II follow-up research (Federal Health and Diet Test Survey) and you will regarding NHANES III suggested an inverse organization away from Na and heart problems death, although given Na in terms of opportunity consumption. fifteen,16 On these training, but not, Na and effort consumption had been estimated using one 24-hr keep in mind, that isn’t enough to guess your common weight reduction intake due to high day-to-big date adaptation in both Na intake and energy consumption and their proportion. After that, times consumption is actually implausibly reduced in one another studies. It is possible the observed dating anywhere between Na consumption and you will cardiovascular illnesses death is said by significantly less than-revealing bias, that’s, when the over weight some body statement all the way down Na density and tend to be more likely to help you pass away out-of cardiovascular illnesses, the fresh new seen relationships will get mirror the fresh new impression out-of being obese rather than diet. The most up-to-date facts away from a potential cohort studies (n=716, 19-12 months realize-up) aligns for the result of the current studies, which have reported frequency from aerobic incidents doubly high one particular on large in place of lowest quartile of Na density (22% rather than 11%, respectively; P=0.005) considering eight-date restaurants info obtained at the standard. 17